カタカナでオシャレシリーズ

Fukuoka | Japan

Numismatische Literatur.

The items of militaria shown below can be viewed in our on-line shop complete with full descriptions, photographs and prices. British Basket-Hilted Swords: A Typology of Basket-Type Sword Hilts Hardcover by Cyril Mazansky. As their situation seemed dire & with serious illness increasing daily at an alarming rate, Lt-Col Galleghan chose to issue this order & therefore save the lives of the 15, Allied prisoners under his command. Feeling that he had no choice after the breakdown of negotiations with the senior Japanese Officer, Galleghan produced this epic speech. The order to sign the document was given.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

From the family collection of a London gentleman; formed in the late ss; thence by descent. The latch lifters are typical of female grave assemblages along with brooches, beads, buckles and other items of personal adornment" Total length 10 inches long.

Officer's Cap Badge Single pin mount. The 8th Punjab Regiment had its origins in the Madras Army, where its first battalion was raised at Masulipatam in Four more battalions were raised in In , they were designated as the 29th, 30th, 31st, 32nd and 33rd Regiments of Madras Native Infantry.

In the early 19th century, these battalions were engaged in fighting the Marathas and took part in a number of foreign expeditions including the Anglo-Burmese Wars. Between and , they were reconstituted with Punjabi Muslims and Sikhs as Burma Battalions and permanently based in Burma to police the turbulent Burmese hill tracts. Under the Kitchener Reforms of , they were redesignated as the 89th, 90th, 91st, 92nd Punjabis, and 93rd Burma Infantry. Their long list of honours and awards includes the Victoria Cross awarded to Naik Shahmed Khan of 89th Punjabis in The 89th Punjabis had the unique distinction of serving in more theatres of war than any other unit of the British Empire.

All battalions served in Mesopotamia, while 93rd Burma Infantry also served in France. The 92nd Punjabis were made 'Prince of Wales's Own' in for their gallantry and sacrifices during the war During the Second World War the 8th Punjab Regiment again distinguished itself, suffering more than casualties.

The regiment raised a further nine battalions. Two of its battalions, the 1st and 7th, were captured on Singapore Island, when the British Commonwealth Army surrendered there to the Japanese on 15 February Two men from the 8th Punjab Regiment received the Victoria Cross: By the end of the war, the Regiment consisted of 14 Battalions. The King'sLiverpool had six territorial battalions within the city, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th. The 6th catered for the middle class, 5th, 7th and 9th for the respectable working class, while 8th Irish and 10th Scottish recruited men with links to the respected country.

The battalion was formed on 30th April when due to the Boer War, it became clear there was a need for men to volunteer their service. It was raised from the higher educated and professional young Scotsmen of city of Liverpool and named the 8th Scottish Volunteer Battalion, The King's Liverpool Regiment. The first Commanding Officer was Colonel C. Woven cloth shield in Blue Red and Gold.

An offshoot of this club formed the Kiel Football club the Kieler Sportvereinigung Holstein von e. V, just after WW1, and they continued to play successfully right until the end of WW2. This badge came as a WW2 souvenir from a British Serviceman of WW2, who fought in Germany until , and then transferred to the Military Police to continue to serve during the occupation till He was stationed in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.

It was worn in conjunction with the Nazi Sports badge, which is also for sale in our gallery. In colour patinated bronze, possibly Austrian. In the Norman through to the Plantagenet eras, War Axes were often the weapon of choice of Kings of England in battle. Henry 1st was the fourth son of William the Conqueror.

Considered by contemporaries to be a harsh but effective ruler, Henry skilfully manipulated the barons in England and Normandy. In England, he drew on the existing Anglo-Saxon system of justice, local government and taxation, but also strengthened it with additional institutions, including the royal exchequer and itinerant justices. Normandy was also governed through a growing system of justices and an exchequer.

Many of the officials that ran Henry's system were "new men" of obscure backgrounds rather than from families of high status, who rose through the ranks as administrators. Henry encouraged ecclesiastical reform, but became embroiled in a serious dispute in with Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury, which was resolved through a compromise solution in He supported the Cluniac order and played a major role in the selection of the senior clergy in England and Normandy.

The early years of Stephen's reign were largely successful, despite a series of attacks on his possessions in England and Normandy by David I of Scotland, Welsh rebels, and the Empress Matilda's husband, Geoffrey of Anjou. In the Empress's half-brother Robert of Gloucester rebelled against Stephen, threatening civil war. Together with his close advisor, Waleran de Beaumont, Stephen took firm steps to defend his rule, including arresting a powerful family of bishops.

When the Empress and Robert invaded in , however, Stephen was unable to crush the revolt rapidly, and it took hold in the south-west of England. Captured at the battle of Lincoln in , Stephen was abandoned by many of his followers and lost control of Normandy. Stephen was freed only after his wife and William of Ypres, one of his military commanders, captured Robert at the Rout of Winchester, but the war dragged on for many years with neither side able to win an advantage.

Henry Iind was an energetic and sometimes ruthless ruler, driven by a desire to restore the lands and privileges of his royal grandfather, Henry I. During the early years of the younger Henry's reign he restored the royal administration in England, re-established hegemony over Wales and gained full control over his lands in Anjou, Maine and Touraine.

Henry's desire to reform the relationship with the Church led to conflict with his former friend Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury. This controversy lasted for much of the s and resulted in Becket's murder in Henry soon came into conflict with Louis VII and the two rulers fought what has been termed a "cold war" over several decades.

Henry expanded his empire, often at Louis' expense, taking Brittany and pushing east into central France and south into Toulouse; despite numerous peace conferences and treaties no lasting agreement was reached. By , he controlled England, large parts of Wales, the eastern half of Ireland and the western half of France, an area that would later come to be called the Angevin Empire. A 13th Century Iron Head Battle Mace Years Old, On Later Haft Pineapple shaped lobes on circular head with large mounting hole through which the haft slots [it is now fitted to a haft for display as its original rotted away centuries ago as usual].

The type were also used as a Flail Mace. Once the hollow iron head was filled with lead and a chain mounted hook placed within it, a chain could be added to the end of a similar wooden haft. This subsequent mace head weapon could thus then became a flail, often called a scorpion at the time.

This iron mace head has flattened pyramidal protuberances, and is possibly English. Made for a mounted Knight to use as an armour and helmet Crusher in hand to hand mortal combat upon his war horse, or then dismounted. It would have been used up to the 15th to 16th century. It was also wryly known as a 'Holy Water Sprinkler'. King John The Ist of Bohemia used exactly such a weapon, as he was blind, and the act of 'Flailing the Mace' meant lack of site was no huge disadvantage in close combat.

Although blind he was a valiant and the bravest of the Warrior Kings, who perished at the Battle of Crecy against the English in On the day he was slain he instructed his Knights [both friends and companions] to lead him to the very centre of battle, so he may strike at least one blow against his enemies. His Knights tied their horses to his, so the King would not be separated from them in the press, and they rode together into the thick of battle, where King John managed to strike not one but at least four noble blows.

The following day of the battle, the horses and the fallen knights were found all about the body of their most noble King, all still tied to his steed. During the Middle Ages metal armour such as mail protected against the blows of edged weapons. Solid metal maces and war hammers proved able to inflict damage on well armoured knights, as the force of a blow from a mace is great enough to cause damage without penetrating the armour.

Though iron became increasingly common, copper and bronze were also used, especially in iron-deficient areas. It is popularly believed that maces were employed by the clergy in warfare to avoid shedding blood sine effusione sanguinis.

The evidence for this is sparse and appears to derive almost entirely from the depiction of Bishop Odo of Bayeux wielding a club-like mace at the Battle of Hastings in the Bayeux Tapestry, the idea being that he did so to avoid either shedding blood or bearing the arms of war.

One of the Crusades this type of mace may have been used was the Crusade of , which was in territorial terms the most successful crusade since the First. Called by Pope Gregory IX, the Barons' Crusade broadly spanned from and embodied the highest point of papal endeavour "to make crusading a universal Christian undertaking.

Although the crusaders did not achieve any glorious military victories, they used diplomacy to successfully play the two warring factions of the Muslim Ayyubid dynasty As-Salih Ismail in Damascus and As-Salih Ayyub in Egypt against one another for even more concessions than Frederick II gained during the more well-known Sixth Crusade. For a few years, the Barons' Crusade returned the Kingdom of Jerusalem to its largest size since This crusade to the Holy Land is sometimes discussed as two separate crusades: Additionally, the Barons' Crusade is often described in tandem with Baldwin of Courtenay's concurrent trip to Constantinople and capture of Tzurulum with a separate, smaller force of crusaders.

This is because Gregory IX briefly attempted to redirect the target his new crusade from liberating the Holy Land from Muslims to protecting the Latin Empire of Constantinople from heretical Christians.

Despite relatively plentiful primary sources, scholarship until recently has been limited, due at least in part to the lack of major military engagements. Although Gregory IX went further than any other pope to create an ideal of Christian unity in the process of organizing the crusade, in practice the crusade's divided leadership did not reveal a unified Christian action or identity in response to taking a cross. The type as were also used as a Flail Mace, with the centre mount being filled with lead and a chain mounted hook, when it was not mounted on a haft, as this mace is.

Flattened pyramidical protuberances, possibly English or East European. Made for a mounted Knight to use as an Armour and Helmet Crusher in mortal combat. King John The Ist of Bohemia used exactly such a weapon, as he was blind, and the act of 'Flailing the Mace' meant that his lack of site was no huge disadvantage in close combat.

A superb late Medieval matchlock swivel cannon barrel used on the back of a camel or war elephant. Light cannons that could be used on the battlefield were the mainstay of the Mughal artillery corps, including the shaturnal, similar to swivel guns, but carried on the backs of camels and even in the howdahs of elephants.

Akbar, widely considered the greatest of the Mughal emperors was thirteen years old when he ascended the throne in Delhi, following the death of his father Humayun. It took him nearly two more decades to consolidate his power and bring parts of northern and central India into his realm. There are original paintings [copied in the gallery] showing Akbar's matchlocks and artillery being used in combat. Towards the end of Akbar concentrated his forces around the fort of Ranthambhor, held by a vassal of the Maharana of Chittor, Rao Surjan Hada of Bundi.

This fort had been attacked earlier in , but that Mughal army had been defeated by the Rajputs. The fort of Gagraun, to the south of Bundi, had however been captured that year. Now after the capture of Chittor Akbar could turn once again to Ranthambhor. With old Jaipur Arsenal Armoury store mark. Photographed on a stand, not included. A 18th Century Culloden Period Scottish Basket Hilted Sword An 18th century Scottish basket hilted back-sword of heavy grade combat form with traditional full open basket, with inset oval opening for the holding of reins when on horseback and heart piercings thoughout each panel, and it has a high bun pommel, and original shagreen grip with wire binding.

Armourer stamped blade, with the running wolf [or fox] mark of Solingen or Passau. In its original leather scabbard, the blade and scabbard are of combat-reduced length. Some few still surviving swords from Culloden have very similarly reduced length blades due to tip damage in the Jacobite rebellion, including the most similar surviving sword of Thomas Milne of Muretoune, supporter of Charles Stuart.

The Jacobite rising of , also known as the Forty-five Rebellion or simply the "45", was an attempt by Charles Edward Stuart to regain the British throne for his father, James Francis Edward Stuart. It took place during the War of the Austrian Succession, when the bulk of the British Army was in Europe, and proved to be the last in a series of revolts that began in , with major outbreaks in , and Charles launched the rebellion on 19 August at Glenfinnan in the Scottish Highlands, capturing Edinburgh and winning the Battle of Prestonpans in September.

At a council in October, the Scots agreed to invade England after Charles assured them of substantial support from English Jacobites and a simultaneous French landing in Southern England. On that basis, the Jacobite army entered England in early November, reaching Derby on 4 December, where they decided to turn back. Similar discussions had taken place at Carlisle, Manchester and Preston and many felt they had gone too far already. The invasion route was chosen to take them through areas considered strongly Jacobite but the promised English support failed to materialise, they were far from home and outnumbered by three government armies, each larger than their own.

While the decision was supported by the vast majority, it caused an irretrievable split between the Scots and Charles. Charles escaped to France, but was unable to win support for another attempt, and died in Rome in The Jacobite cause did not entirely disappear after but the exposure of the key factions' conflicting objectives ended it as a serious threat.

Many Scots were disillusioned by Charles' leadership while areas in England that were strongly Jacobite in like Northumberland and County Durham provided minimal support in Irish Jacobite societies continued but increasingly reflected opposition to the existing order rather than affection for the Stuarts and were absorbed by the Republican United Irishmen.

The hilt has a loss of quillon and half langet. A scarce sword from a most turbulent era of French history. Used from the era of France's alliance to America in the Revolutionary War of , right through the French Revolution There are several such swords in Smithsonian in America.

French participation in North America was initially maritime in nature and marked by some indecision on the part of its military leaders. In American and French planners organized an attempt to capture Newport, Rhode Island, then under British occupation. The attempt failed, in part because Admiral d'Estaing did not land French troops prior to sailing out of Narragansett Bay to meet the British fleet, and then sailed for Boston after his fleet was damaged in a storm.

In , d'Estaing again led his fleet to North America for joint operations, this time against British-held Savannah, Georgia. About 3, French joined with 2, Americans in the Siege of Savannah, in which a naval bombardment was unsuccessful, and then an attempted assault of the entrenched British position was repulsed with heavy losses. Support became more notable when in ; 6, soldiers led by Rochambeau were landed at Newport, abandoned in by the British, and they established a naval base there.

Rochambeau and Washington met at Wethersfield, Connecticut in May to discuss their options. Washington wanted to drive the British from New York City, and the British force in Virginia, led first by turncoat Benedict Arnold, then by Brigadier William Phillips, and eventually by Charles Cornwallis, was also seen as a potent threat that could be fought with naval assistance.

These two options were dispatched to the Caribbean along with the requested pilots; Rochambeau, in a separate letter, urged de Grasse to come to the Chesapeake Bay for operations in Virginia. De Grasse received these letters in July, at roughly the same time Cornwallis was preparing to occupy Yorktown, Virginia.

De Grasse concurred with Rochambeau, and sent back a dispatch indicating that he would reach the Chesapeake at the end of August, but that agreements with the Spanish meant he could only stay until mid-October. The arrival of his dispatches prompted the Franco-American army to begin a march for Virginia.

De Grasse reached the Chesapeake as planned, and disembarked troops to assist Lafayette's army in the blockade of Cornwallis. The arrival of a British fleet sent to dispute de Grasse's control of the Chesapeake was defeated on September 5 at the Battle of the Chesapeake, and the Newport fleet delivered the French siege train to complete the allied military arrival.

The Siege of Yorktown and following surrender by Cornwallis on October 19 were decisive in ending major hostilities in North America. Starting with the Siege of Yorktown, Benjamin Franklin never informed France of the secret negotiations that took place directly between Britain and the United States. Britain relinquished her rule over the Thirteen Colonies and granted them all the land south of the Great Lakes and east of the Mississippi River.

However, since France was not included in the American-British peace discussions, the alliance between France and the colonies was broken. Thus the influence of France and Spain in future negotiations was limited. A 's Brass Hilted Boy's or Midshipman's Sword An interesting boy's or midshipman's sword from the period of the American revolutionary war. Cast brass rococo hilt, with shell guard and knuckle bow.

Overall length 36 inches. There is a picture in the gallery by Thomas Rowlandson of a similar sword worn by a young boy officer [midshipman] of the Royal Navy in the 18th century. In the 18th century there were no regualtions for sword patterns, so a sword such as this would have been perfect and worn by a young junior naval officer. The rank of midshipman originated during the Tudor and Stuart eras, and originally referred to a post for an experienced seaman promoted from the ordinary deck hands, who worked in between the main and mizzen masts and had more responsibility than an ordinary seaman, but was not a military officer or an officer in training.

The first published use of the term midshipman was in The word derives from an area aboard a ship, amidships, but it refers either to the location where midshipmen worked on the ship, or the location where midshipmen were berthed. By the 18th century, four types of midshipman existed: Some midshipmen were older men, and while most were officer candidates who failed to pass the lieutenant examination or were passed over for promotion, some members of the original rating served, as late as , alongside apprentice officers without themselves aspiring to a commission.

By , all midshipmen were considered officer candidates. The everage age of entry in the 18th century was 12, but some of younger age were certainly known of. With Copper Gilt Hilt A most attractive sword based on the Light Dragoon sbare but slightly shorter for the benefit of an officer that fought on foot. The hilt is beautifully engraved with Union flag shield nd stands of arms, the lion's head pommel and wire bound fishskin grip.

The blade has fine engraving with royal cyphers and crest of the king. There is a lot of dark blue remaining and gilt within the engraving. Old repair to the knucklebow. In untouched condition for likely years. With obvious signs of combat use and wear but a good honest example of an original Peninsular War and Waterloo British infantry officer's sword of the Napoleonic Wars.

They revolutionized European armies and played out on an unprecedented scale, mainly owing to the application of modern mass conscription. The wars are traditionally seen as a continuation of the Revolutionary Wars, which broke out in during the French Revolution. Initially, French power rose quickly as the armies of Napoleon conquered much of Europe. In his military career, Napoleon fought about 60 battles and lost seven, mostly at the end.

The great French dominion collapsed rapidly after the disastrous invasion of Russia in Napoleon was defeated in , and then once more in at Waterloo after a brief return to power. Before a final victory against Napoleon, five of seven coalitions saw defeat at the hands of France. France defeated the first and second coalitions during the French Revolutionary Wars, the third notably at Austerlitz , the fourth notably at Jena, Eylau, and Friedland and the fifth coalition notably at Wagram under the leadership of Napoleon.

These great victories gave the French Army a sense of invulnerability, especially when it approached Moscow. But after the retreat from Russia, in spite of incomplete victories, France was defeated by the sixth coalition at Leipzig, in the Peninsular War at Vitoria and at the hands of the seventh coalition at Waterloo. The wars resulted in the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire and sowed the seeds of nationalism that would lead to the consolidations of Germany and Italy later in the century.

Meanwhile, the global Spanish Empire began to unravel as French occupation of Spain weakened Spain's hold over its colonies, providing an opening for nationalist revolutions in Spanish America. As a direct result of the Napoleonic wars, the British Empire became the foremost world power for the next century, thus beginning Pax Britannica.

An early candidate is 9 November , the date of Bonaparte's coup seizing power in France. However, the most common date is 18 May , when renewed war broke out between Britain and France, ending the one-year-old Peace of Amiens, the only period of general peace in Europe between and Most actual fighting ceased following Napoleon's final defeat at Waterloo on 18 June , although skirmishing continued as late as 3 July at the Battle of Issy.

The Second Treaty of Paris officially ended the wars on 20 November Some thirty-four regiments of fencible cavalry regiments were raised in and , in response to an invasion scare. At the same time, a large number of troops of volunteer cavalry were raised on a county level, consisting of local gentry and yeoman farmers; from the latter they took the description yeomanry. These troops formed into yeomanry regiments, organised broadly by county, around ; their history thereafter is complex, with many disbanding, reforming, and changing title intermittently.

However, most remained in existence throughout the nineteenth century, seeing occasional service quelling riots and helping to maintain public order. The founder of the dynasty of barrel makers was the legendary Lazarino Cominazzo, first recorded in the accouints of Vincenzo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, for , as Lazari[no] da Gardo[ne].

The most gifted of them in the second half of the 17th century was Fortunato Cominazzo , who signed himself as Lazarino Cominazzo and was noted for the extreme lightness of his barrels. Unfortunately, as a Brescian chronicle records: On 29 October there was great trouble and revolution in the district of Gardone, Val Trompia, in the course of which both quarrels and murders frequently took place.

Many members of the family lost their lives at the same time, while others fled the area only to return in Due to his fame other makers inscribed his name to their barrels in order to elevate their pistols to his esteemed level. Very nice working order and fine condition for age. It is engraved with the two kanji under the chrysanthemum mon on the kodzukatana [blade] that likely reads "raijo" meaning "remove thunder".

Original early examples such as this are rare and highly collectable. Not to be confused with much later Meiji period copies. This is only the second early example we have had in 25 years. Beside their use for horse-healing, they are known as throwing-knifes shuriken or hidden knives.

These were used as both horse bleeder tools and sometimes a backup weapon or "property marker" for samurai. Found on mountings sometimes in place of a kogai, Umabari "horse needle". The kodzuka handle portion is engraved with many Japanese characters from a poem. Poetry on Bushi horsemanship that starts "Excellent famous horses". It is believed their principle region of use for these was in the province of Higo, but they were carried elsewhere as time progressed.

It is said there are numerous stories about badly wounded Ronin on the battlefield who would use their Umabari to attack one more foe as the victors moved among the fallen samurai warriors to finish those who were thought helpless.

Just over 8 inches long. Embossed steel cup with acanthus leaf scrolling and left and right hand gadrooning, rolled scroll edging. Long spiral writhen quillons. Wire twist grip with elaborate wire binding. Compressed, cut, cushion shaped pommel. Blade 32 inches long. Made in the 19th century. Removed knuckle bow in it's working life. A duel is an arranged engagement in combat between two individuals, with matched weapons in accordance with agreed-upon rules.

Duels in this form were chiefly practiced in early modern Europe, with precedents in the medieval code of chivalry, and continued into the modern period 19th to early 20th centuries especially among military officers. During the 17th and 18th centuries and earlier , duels were mostly fought with swords the rapier, later the smallsword , but beginning in the late 18th century in England, duels were more commonly fought using pistols; fencing and pistol duels continued to co-exist throughout the 19th century.

The duel was based on a code of honour. Duels were fought not so much to kill the opponent as to gain "satisfaction", that is, to restore one's honour by demonstrating a willingness to risk one's life for it, and as such the tradition of duelling was originally reserved for the male members of nobility; however, in the modern era it extended to those of the upper classes generally.

On rare occasions, duels with pistols or swords were fought between women; these were sometimes known as petticoat duels. Legislation against duelling goes back to the medieval period. The Fourth Council of the Lateran outlawed duels,mnand civil legislation in the Holy Roman Empire against duelling was passed in the wake of the Thirty Years' War.

From the early 17th century, duels became illegal in the countries where they were practiced. Dueling largely fell out of favor in England by the midth century and in Continental Europe by the turn of the 20th century. Dueling declined in the Eastern United States in the 19th century and by the time the American Civil War broke out, dueling had begun an irreversible decline, even in the South.

Public opinion, not legislation, caused the change. Iron combat axe head of iconic backswept form with elongated rectangular socket mount, on likely a later haft. His reign lasted for 49 years from until his death in Aurangzeb was a notable expansionist and during his reign, the Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent, ruling over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent. During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire to 4 million square kilometres, and he ruled over a population estimated to be over million subjects, with an annual yearly revenue of more than ten times that of his contemporary King Louis XIV of France, around 39 million pounds almost 3 billion rupees in Under his reign, India surpassed China to become the world's largest economy, nearly a quarter of world GDP in Aurangzeb is considered one of India's most controversial kings.

Some historians argue that his policies abandoned his predecessors' legacy of pluralism and religious tolerance, citing his destruction of Hindu temples and execution of a Sikh guru, while other historians question this, arguing that his destruction of temples has been exaggerated and were politically motivated, and noting that he built more temples than he destroyed, also destroyed Islamic mosques, paid for the maintenance of temples, employed significantly more Hindus in his imperial bureaucracy than his predecessors did, and opposed bigotry against Hindus and Shia Muslims.

It was at the end of his reign that the downfall of the Mughal Empire began. Rebellions and wars eventually led to the exhaustion of the imperial Mughal treasury and army. He was a strong-handed authoritarian ruler, and following his death the expansionary period of the Mughal Empire came to an end.

Nevertheless, the contiguous territory of the Mughal Empire still remained intact more or less until the reign of Muhammad Shah. A 's Essex Regt. Thus, before , SS officers often chose this all steel and black P-Hilt sabre as it's black and steel configuration was ideal for their service uniform.

We show a photograph circa with one officer on the left carrying the degan, and the two others with the steel and black P-Hilt. Generally it was known as the cavalry sabre due to it's regular cavalry pattern form and used by the German cavalry regiments on horseback.

Due to the early uniform of the SS being black and silver the choice remained limited, generally, to the pattern of military swords available that utilized these colours. The predominant colour normally used, and chosen by the regular Army officers, was brass [or gold] with black. The private purchase swords, generally chosen by those serving in the SS, were this sword or the Prinz Eugen. Very nice clear focusing optics, a little dusty inside, with original neck strap, Carl Zeiss Jena maker marking.

Made for the London market in the 's but used by a German officer in WW2. Possibly as a private purchase piece on a visit to London before the war, or by a German university student in London who later became an officer of the Reich. The firm of Carl Zeiss was founded in Jena in and grew to be the most dominant optical and fine mechanical firm in the world at the beginning of the twentieth century through Lahti L is a semi-automatic pistol designed by Aimo Lahti that was produced from to just after the war.

About pistols were made in four production series. The weapon had a bolt accelerator to improve reliability in cold conditions or when fouled. This kind of system was rare for pistols. It also resembled the German Luger P08 pistol. Finnish military designation 9. It was reliable, accurate and sturdy pistol, but also one of the largest and heaviest 9-mm military pistols ever manufactured. Structure of the this strong looking pistol had its week point: Powerful submachinegun-ammunition often used by Finnish troops with these pistols could crack the pistols slide quite easily.

As all 9 mm x 19 ammunition manufactured during World War 2 in Finland was hot loaded submachinegun-ammunition using this ammunition also pistols of same calibre unfortunately wasn't exactly unusual during World War 2 and years after it. When the slides of L broke down in larger numbers Finnish military soon found itself needing replacements for them.

Because of this many series of replacement slides were manufactured for Finnish military after World War 2. Most of these pistols all but series 4 have shoulder stock attachment lugs.

While the Finns developed and tested wooden shoulder stocks and wooden shoulder stock holsters for these pistols, these were never manufactured in real numbers and the pistols were issued without them. The practice was common up to the 20th century and may still be practised in isolated Naga tribes of Burma. Many of the Naga warriors still bear the marks tattoos and others of a successful headhunt.

The simple wood handle is wrapped with basketry towards the blade. Differential corrosion has disclosed the blade to have a piled structure. The single edged blade, with a slightly convex curved edge, is illustrated edge up. The flat face of the blade is shown in the full length view and in the blade detail photograph; the side of the blade shown in the detail photograph of the handle has an indistinct bevel, occupying about two-fifths of the blade's width, where the blade thins to form the edge.

Serpentine lamination to the blade. One photo is of a Kachin villager wearing a near identical sword-dao photographed with Lt. A Naga is laying out his family skull trophies, a tree of Naga skulls in a national museum, and the last photo is of Naga tribesmen in All for information only. Painted in faded pale Russian blue-grey. Said, from family history, to have been used by an officer of the 17th Lancers who acquired it from various kit captured from a Russian baggage train.

The British officer then used it for his gun case and military kit during this campaign, and later by his sons. The last picture shows the bottom rear strap loops for mounting the trunk on the rear of a horse drawn baggage coach.

Adapted with a turned walnut handle to create a hand held, thrusting sword, ideal for close combat action without it's rifle. Possibly for use in conjunction with a pistol. An ingenious and effective method of creating a hand effective bayonet that without such a fitting would be a redundant weapon without it's rifle to affix to.

A beautiful flask but non working action due to spring. Blade maker marked by WKC, Solingen. The Police and the SS officers shared this common pattern of sword from onwards. The Ordnungspolizei was separate from the SS and maintained a system of insignia and Orpo ranks.

It was possible for policemen to be members of the SS but without active duties. Police generals who were members of the SS were referred to simultaneously by both rank titles during the war. Local law enforcement would be undertaken by the Allgemeine-SS with the Waffen-SS providing homeland-security and political-police functions. Historical analysis of the Third Reich has revealed that senior Orpo personnel knew of Himmler's plan and were opposed to it.

Good blade, just grey needing polish, good scabbard with no denting just paint wear. Very good bright hilt with all natural age wear. An airline funded and partnered by Lufthansa, with many German directors and principles. Lufthansa was once an instrument of the Third Reich, an airline that effectively was used to create the modern wartime Luftwaffe through it's training of German pilots for the coming war.

It's company title was named after the Nazi favoured representation of their joint Spanish-German aeronautical endeavours. It was decided the South American company name should be the Condor Syndicato Ltda, as the Reich associated aviation in the Spanish speaking worlds with the Condor.

This title was thus used by the German pilots and tank crews that served in the 'Condor Legion'. Volunteers from the German armed forces, that fought for Franco in the Spanish Civil war.

The Condor Legion was used to develop the principles, and perfect the techniques, of their new system of warfare called Blitzkrieg. This new, devilish, and incredibly successful method of warfare was rehearsed, in other areas of influence and conflict, outside of Germany before the war. The obverse features a crowned effigy of Queen Elizabeth II facing right, in a high-collared ermine cloak and wearing the collar of the Garter and Badge of the Bath. There is no raised rim and no legend.

For those of captain's rank the gorget was gilt with the king's monogram under a crown in blue enamel, while more junior officers wore silver-plated gorgets with the initials in gold.

During the 18th and early 19th centuries, crescent-shaped gorgets of silver or silver gilt were worn by officers in most European armies, both as a badge of rank and an indication that they were on duty.

These last survivals of armour were much smaller usually about three to four inches in width than their Medieval predecessors and were suspended by chains or ribbons. In the British service they carried the Royal coat of arms until and thereafter the Royal cypher.

Gorgets ceased to be worn by British army officers in , and by their French counterparts 20 years later. They were still worn to a limited extent in the Imperial German Army until , as a special distinction by officers of the Prussian Gardes du Corps and the 2nd Cuirassiers "Queen". Officers of the Spanish infantry continued to wear gorgets with the cypher of King Alfonso XIII in full dress until the overthrow of the Monarchy in Mexican Federal army officers also wore the gorget with the badge of their branch as part of their parade uniform.

This practice ended in The gorget was revived as a uniform accessory during Germany's Third Reich, seeing widespread use within the German military and Nazi party organizations. During World War II, it continued to be used by German military field police, which wore metal gorgets as emblems of authority. German police gorgets of this period typically were flat metal crescents with ornamental designs that were suspended by a chain worn around the neck.

Following the German example, the Finnish Defence Forces still use a metal gorget as a distinguishing mark of the duty conscript of a company; the main task is guard duty at the entrance and security within the barracks. Good original cast whitemetal example of sound weight.

The unit can trace its origins to the Volunteer Medical Staff Companies formed in the nineteeth century. These saw service in the Boer War. Following the formation of the Territorial Army in units saw service in the World Wars. The unit tartan has for some years been Graham of Montrose, worn originally by the Pipes and Drums of the 2nd Scottish General Hospital from These are the three medical elements of the Field Hospital.

Founded by Marshal Semyon M. The legendary commander of the Red Cavalry during the Russian Civil War of against the defeated White armies of the fallen Tsar Nicholas II, the colourful, swashbuckling, walrus-moustached Budenny was a sort of latter day Prussian Marshal Gebhard von Blucher, whom he strongly resembled in character. At 8 am on the cold, blustery morning of November 7, , the 24th anniversary of the Russian Communist Bolshevik Revolution of , a dashing lone horseman galloped out of the Spassky Gate of the Kremlin onto snow-covered Red Square.

Marshal Semyon Mikhailovich Budenny died at age 90 on October 26, , and was buried with full military honors in the Kremlin Wall beside his revered former leader, Josef Stalin. Photo in the gallery of the Schiffsstammabteilung Der Ostsee officers and men. Officer's Cap Badge Single pin mount. The 8th Punjab Regiment had its origins in the Madras Army, where its first battalion was raised at Masulipatam in Four more battalions were raised in In , they were designated as the 29th, 30th, 31st, 32nd and 33rd Regiments of Madras Native Infantry.

In the early 19th century, these battalions were engaged in fighting the Marathas and took part in a number of foreign expeditions including the Anglo-Burmese Wars. Between and , they were reconstituted with Punjabi Muslims and Sikhs as Burma Battalions and permanently based in Burma to police the turbulent Burmese hill tracts. Under the Kitchener Reforms of , they were redesignated as the 89th, 90th, 91st, 92nd Punjabis, and 93rd Burma Infantry.

Their long list of honours and awards includes the Victoria Cross awarded to Naik Shahmed Khan of 89th Punjabis in The 89th Punjabis had the unique distinction of serving in more theatres of war than any other unit of the British Empire.

All battalions served in Mesopotamia, while 93rd Burma Infantry also served in France. The 92nd Punjabis were made 'Prince of Wales's Own' in for their gallantry and sacrifices during the war During the Second World War the 8th Punjab Regiment again distinguished itself, suffering more than casualties.

The regiment raised a further nine battalions. Two of its battalions, the 1st and 7th, were captured on Singapore Island, when the British Commonwealth Army surrendered there to the Japanese on 15 February Two men from the 8th Punjab Regiment received the Victoria Cross: By the end of the war, the Regiment consisted of 14 Battalions.

The King'sLiverpool had six territorial battalions within the city, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th. The 6th catered for the middle class, 5th, 7th and 9th for the respectable working class, while 8th Irish and 10th Scottish recruited men with links to the respected country. The battalion was formed on 30th April when due to the Boer War, it became clear there was a need for men to volunteer their service. It was raised from the higher educated and professional young Scotsmen of city of Liverpool and named the 8th Scottish Volunteer Battalion, The King's Liverpool Regiment.

The first Commanding Officer was Colonel C. Woven cloth shield in Blue Red and Gold. An offshoot of this club formed the Kiel Football club the Kieler Sportvereinigung Holstein von e.

V, just after WW1, and they continued to play successfully right until the end of WW2. This badge came as a WW2 souvenir from a British Serviceman of WW2, who fought in Germany until , and then transferred to the Military Police to continue to serve during the occupation till He was stationed in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.

It was worn in conjunction with the Nazi Sports badge, which is also for sale in our gallery. A 's Essex Regt.

Thus, before , SS officers often chose this all steel and black P-Hilt sabre as it's black and steel configuration was ideal for their service uniform. We show a photograph circa with one officer on the left carrying the degan, and the two others with the steel and black P-Hilt. Generally it was known as the cavalry sabre due to it's regular cavalry pattern form and used by the German cavalry regiments on horseback.

Due to the early uniform of the SS being black and silver the choice remained limited, generally, to the pattern of military swords available that utilized these colours. The predominant colour normally used, and chosen by the regular Army officers, was brass [or gold] with black. The private purchase swords, generally chosen by those serving in the SS, were this sword or the Prinz Eugen. Very nice clear focusing optics, a little dusty inside, with original neck strap, Carl Zeiss Jena maker marking.

Made for the London market in the 's but used by a German officer in WW2. Possibly as a private purchase piece on a visit to London before the war, or by a German university student in London who later became an officer of the Reich. The firm of Carl Zeiss was founded in Jena in and grew to be the most dominant optical and fine mechanical firm in the world at the beginning of the twentieth century through Lahti L is a semi-automatic pistol designed by Aimo Lahti that was produced from to just after the war.

About pistols were made in four production series. The weapon had a bolt accelerator to improve reliability in cold conditions or when fouled. This kind of system was rare for pistols. It also resembled the German Luger P08 pistol. Finnish military designation 9. It was reliable, accurate and sturdy pistol, but also one of the largest and heaviest 9-mm military pistols ever manufactured.

Structure of the this strong looking pistol had its week point: Powerful submachinegun-ammunition often used by Finnish troops with these pistols could crack the pistols slide quite easily.

As all 9 mm x 19 ammunition manufactured during World War 2 in Finland was hot loaded submachinegun-ammunition using this ammunition also pistols of same calibre unfortunately wasn't exactly unusual during World War 2 and years after it. When the slides of L broke down in larger numbers Finnish military soon found itself needing replacements for them. Because of this many series of replacement slides were manufactured for Finnish military after World War 2.

Most of these pistols all but series 4 have shoulder stock attachment lugs. While the Finns developed and tested wooden shoulder stocks and wooden shoulder stock holsters for these pistols, these were never manufactured in real numbers and the pistols were issued without them.

One way to distinguish between the regiments of Foot Guards is the spacing of buttons on the tunic. The Welsh Guards have buttons arranged in groups of five. Its first battle was some months after its initial arrival, at Loos on September 27, The regiment was increased to three Battalions during the Second World War. The 2nd Battalion fought in Boulogne in whilst the 1st fought in Belgium as part of the British Expeditionary Force.

Christopher Furness who was killed in the action. The Welsh Guards were subsequently part of the legendary Evacuation of Dunkirk that saw over , British and French troops return to the UK against all odds. Welsh Guards in action near Cagny 19 July While they battled on in those theatres the 1st and 2nd joined the Guards Armoured Division, with the 1st Battalion being infantry and the 2nd armoured. The two battalions worked closely, being the first troops to re-enter Brussels on September 3, after an advance of miles in one day in what was described as 'an armoured lash unequalled for speed in this or any other war'.

A Beautiful Graf Zeppelin Frame with Original Olympics Photo Card A beautiful easel mounted picture frame in florid relief patterned britannia metal, with a portrait bust in relief of Graf Zeppelin. It displays a Berlin stamped photo card of the Olympice rings in Berlin in A fantastic piece of 's German Olympic memorablia.

It was first created in in both countries and consists of a square-cross medal on two crossed swords, hanging from a ribbon with various degree pins. The croix de guerre was also commonly bestowed to foreign military forces allied to France and Belgium. The croix de guerre may either be bestowed as a unit award or to individuals who distinguish themselves by acts of heroism involving combat with enemy forces.

The medal is also awarded to those who have been "mentioned in despatches", meaning a heroic deed was performed meriting a citation from an individual's headquarters unit. The unit award of the croix de guerre was issued to military commands who performed heroic deeds in combat and were subsequently recognized by headquarters. A good size serving trasy or dish 30cm across. Made in hand beaten German hallmarked silver grade in the form of scalloped shell. Made to celebrate the record braking summer Olympic Games season of the Zeppelin Hindenburg in D-LZ was a large German commercial passenger-carrying rigid airship, the lead ship of the Hindenburg class, the longest class of flying machine and the largest airship by envelope volume.

Designed and built by the Zeppelin Company Luftschiffbau Zeppelin GmbH on the shores of the Bodensee Lake Constance in Friedrichshafen, the airship flew from March until destroyed by fire 14 months later on May 6, , at the end of the first North American transatlantic journey of its second season of service. The Hindenburg made 17 round trips across the Atlantic Ocean in , its first and only full year of service, with ten trips to the United States and seven to Brazil.

In July , the airship also completed a record Atlantic double crossing in five days, 19 hours and 51 minutes. Among the famous passengers who travelled on the airship was German heavyweight boxing champion Max Schmeling, who returned home on the Hindenburg to a hero's welcome after knocking out Joe Louis in New York on June 19, During the season the airship flew , miles , km , carried 2, passengers, and transported tons of freight and mail, a level of success that encouraged the Luftschiffbau Zeppelin Company to plan the expansion of its airship fleet and transatlantic services.

The airship was reportedly so stable that a pen or pencil could be stood on a table without falling. Its launches were so smooth that passengers often missed them, believing that the airship was still docked to its mooring mast. Hindenburg passengers were generally affluent, including many public figures, entertainers, noted sportsmen, political figures, and leaders of industry.

The Hindenburg was used again for propaganda purposes when it flew over the Olympic Stadium in Berlin on August 1 during the opening ceremonies of the Summer Olympic Games. Shortly before the arrival of Adolf Hitler to declare the Games open, the airship crossed low over the packed stadium while trailing the Olympic flag on a long weighted line suspended from its gondola.

Olympiafahrt Berlin flown Hindenburg cover. Weight approx 22 oz Troy. Bearing a blue stone it the handle. Silver plated over brass. A most attractive piece of gentlemans deskware. ERII replacement issue in superb condition court mounted. South Arabia; This campaign is related to the Radfan Campaign, because both were Egyptian-inspired attempts to end the British presence in Aden and end the embryonic Federation of South Arabia.

This 3 year long campaign saw numerous terrorist attacks on both civilian and military targets. In both Rafan and Aden, the British Army suffered 90 personnel killed and wounded. The qualifying period was 30 days service in the Federation of South Arabia between 1 August and 30 November A fascinating collection outlining a WW1 German soldier's military career. He was a trench warfare Mortar Grenade operator [the Granatenwerfer 16].

See photo in the gallery [for information only]. It would make a charming and fascinating gift as it is researchable to see where this soldier served, on which front and where his unit fought and when. Next to the Victoria Cross, it is the most famous medal in the world. The Iron Cross was awarded for bravery in battle as well as other conspicuos military contributions in a battlefield environment.

The Iron Cross 2nd Class came with a ribbon and was worn in one of two different methods: When in formal dress, the entire cross was worn mounted alone or as part of a medal bar.

For everyday wear, only the ribbon was worn from the second hole in the tunic button. It was designed by the neoclassical architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel and reflects the cross borne by the Teutonic Knights in the 14th century. The ribbon for the , and Iron Cross 2nd Class was black with two thin white bands, the colours of Prussia. The non-combatant version of this award had the same medal, but the black and white colours on the ribbon were reversed.

Initially the Iron Cross was worn with the blank side out. This did not change until when the sprig facing could be presented. Since the Iron Cross was issued over several different periods of German history, it was annotated with the year indicating the era in which it was issued.

The reverse of the , and series of Iron Crosses have the year "" appearing on the lower arm, symbolizing the year the award was created. The final version shows a swastika. It was also possible for a holder of the Iron Cross to be awarded a second or higher grade of the Iron Cross. In such cases, a " Clasp" Spange would be worn on the original Iron Cross.

A similar award was made in but was quite rare, since there were few in service who held the Iron Cross. For the First Class award the Spange appears as an eagle with the date "" that was pinned above the Cross.

Although two separate awards, in some cases the holders soldered them together. As with all our items, each one comes with our unique, lifetime guarantee, certificate of authenticity. Early WW2 Having traded in the same location for 60 years or so our company has met some many hundreds of thousands of most remarkable people, and heard too many fantastic stories [or tales] to remember. Every week something new is learnt, or someone new is met. This week an aged lady, with a most fascinating story, let us acquire this most intriguing piece.

Not valuable, or even that impressive in fact, but it's position in the development of modern edged weaponry is quite fascinating. This is or was a prototype close combat dagger came to us from the niece of a one time cutler and assistant knife designer [trained by the veteran Wilkinson swordsmith Tom Beesley] who was briefly working with Capt. Fairbairn [via Wilkinson Sword Co. The handle from this dagger was created and based from small cast brass Wilkinson court sword parts, with a square block and oval quillon.

The blade, formed to create a strong, rigid short double edged blade, that has good stout piercing properties came from a long Wilkinson sword blade. No edge was ever put on this blade, but one can easily see how the FS knife may have evolved from this early war period prototype design.

We are only distressed that we have no design schematics and paperwork, that were we were told were once in existence, to show how the knife was eventually designed. Sadly and woe alas all the paperwork was discarded some two decades after the war as seemingly insignificant. Naturally it is certainly possible he ought not to have done so.

Launched in used in WW2 as a Troopship, then restored to service as the worlds greatest luxury cruise ship after the war. Consistent with Nazi ideology, the airship was expected to be more than just a private commercial venture; it was to be a public symbol of the new German nation.

In a speech marking the founding of the DZR, Göring commented: Also in the South American route was extended to Rio de Janeiro. Deutsche Zeppelin-Reederei ceased operations as the commercial use of airships came to an abrupt end on 6 May , when the 'Hindenburg' exploded at Lakehurst.

This large silver tray is made of German silver plate, 90 grade, and was the product of the same silver company that made the the Third Reich military cutlery and other silver objects for the Third Reich hierarchy - Gbr.

His company alongside his rival, Wellner, was a maker of much of the Fuhrer's formal dinnerware, and the Reich chancellery dinnerware pieces. Many items by were used in several of Hitler's residences, the Hotel [Der Deutscher Hof] personally used by Hitler, and numerous state offices.

After the German invasion of Poland in , the Luftwaffe ordered the last two Zeppelin airships moved to a large Zeppelin hangar in Frankfurt. In March of , Goring ordered their destruction and the aluminum fed into the Nazi war industry. In May, a fire broke out in the Zeppelin facility which destroyed most of the remaining parts. The rest of the parts and materials were soon scrapped with almost no trace of the German "Giants of the Air" remaining by the end of the year.

A East Riding Rgt. A great and impressive steel bowl guard cavalry sword, used by one of the great WW1 'pals' regiments of East Yorkshire, and part of this cavalry regiment served in one of the most famous areas of the Great War, in Arabia, under the direct command of T. Sword marked East Riding Regt. The story of the Lawrence connection is as follows; In the Regiment was part of the Western Frontier Force, a fairly uninteresting posting , causing NCOs and men to join the newly formed Imperial Camel Corps and officers and men to be detached for service under T.

The regiment was formed as volunteer cavalry in during the French Revolutionary Wars. On May 20, the Regiment formed part of a parade of some 40, men before H. The King and Lord Kitchener. In October they set sail for Alexandria. The Regiment first saw action during the First Battle of Gaza, a hard engagement for both the men and the horses, and in the Second Gaza Battle it was posted to the far right flank. A Squadron led 22nd Mounted Brigade, having captured their objective they pressed on to Akir and established a position on the far side of the village square, however they had to withdraw as they were unsupported by the rest of the Brigade.

Sadly it transpired that the village was the location of a Turkish Corps Headquarters, and had the success of the attack been exploited then a major dislocation of the enemy lines could have resulted.

El Mughar was the last great cavalry charge of the British Army. In December , with the exception of the machine gun section the Regiment was dismounted and sent to France. The Battalion saw action several times in the closing months of the war in the area around Cambrai supporting attacks by the 49th West Riding Division, 51st Highland Division and 56th London Infantry Divisions.

In , another reorganisation resulted in further change, the Regiment was reconstituted as The East Riding Yeomanry a Divisional Cavalry Regiment Mechanised equipped with 28 light tanks, 44 carriers and 41 motorcycles, and in a duplicate 2nd line regiment was raised. The regiment's World War II story.

The remnants of 1 ERY 7 officers and men returned to Tidworth, where the Regiment was brought up to strength by drafts from the 2nd Regiment, prior to moving onto Bovington to rejoin 1st Armoured Reconnaissance Brigade. They next deployed to Essex for anti-invasion duties, where it was equipped with Beavettes. The training all came to fruition on June 6, , when the Regiment landed on D Day supporting 9th Infantry Brigade in 3rd Division, and for the following fifty days they took part in the bridgehead battles.

During this period they also supported 59th Staffordshire Infantry Division. In October, the Regiment supported 53rd Welsh Division, in Holland fighting around 's-Hertogenbosch and the later crossing of the Maas.

However, during the winter of , it was hurried away to reinforce the pressure being put on the German "Bulge", and then in January returned to 79th Armoured Division, and re-equipped with Buffalo, to carry the troops of 15th Scottish Division, on the assault crossing of the Rhine March For the last weeks of the war, the Regiment reconverted to Shermans, coming under the command of the Canadian Army clearing Holland. This is a troopers battle sword in every sense of the word, and with it's regimental markings it comes with it's own built-in provenence.

It also has various ordnance inspection and issue marks and has obvious signs of combat use, but the blade is superb. This is truly a iconic example of a Great British Army cavalry trooper's sword, from of one of the great North of England volunteer regiments. Like so many other British Army regiments, a regiment that goes down in the annals of military history as deserving the greatest honour and respect, a force of men bathed in stories of nobility, heroism, glory, valour and self sacrifice.

A Fabulous Original Movie Poster. The pilot who rescued Nobile also crashed when returning to rescue more survivors and had to be rescued himself. O'Brien as Radio Operator uncredited. This is one of the very last few we have seen in over 30 years and the first three we sold straightaway. From a superb collection of German ordnance that has arrived. We also have a very rare original Nebelwefer crew officers cap for sale seperately [now just sold]. This is one of our last Nebelwerfer Rocket from this collection.

Nicknamed by the allies the 'Moaning Mini' due to it's unearthly scream as it flew. An original unfired example, and a simply remarkable piece of history, from the early German Third Reich's rocket technology, and part of a superb Third Reich collection we have been thrilled to acquire.

Beautifully waffen amt marked and with original paint decoration. They were initially developed by and assigned to the Wehrmacht's so-called "smoke troops" Nebeltruppen.

This weapon was given its name as a disinformation strategy designed to fool observers from the League of Nations, who were observing any possible infraction of the Treaty of Versailles, into thinking that it was merely a device for creating a smoke screen. However, they were primarily intended to deliver poison gas combined with smoke shells, although a high-explosive shell was developed for the Nebelwerfer from the very beginning. Initially, two different mortars were fielded before they were replaced by a variety of rocket launchers ranging in size from 15 to 32 centimetres 5.

Nebeltruppen smoke troops are general chemical warfare troops, who were trained for both smoke and gas operations, and in the event of chemical warfare breaking out, the offensive role will be borne primarily by them. Specifically with reference to the use of smoke, it should be borne in mind that when smoke is required in limited areas it is produced generally by smoke-producing ammunition fired by the combat units' organic weapons, such as artillery and mortars; in operations involving the use of smoke in large quantities the specially trained and equipped, smoke troops are used.

A number of these units was reported destroyed at Stalingrad. Three smoke batteries were also reported in North Africa. It was known that the Grossdeutschland Division and probably 20 divisions formed since December , include a Nebelwerfer smoke battery. The blinding screen is laid to blind hostile observation.

The area screen is laid over an extensive area and fighting is carried out within the screen under conditions similar to a natural thick fog. The thin walls of the rockets had the great advantage of allowing much larger quantities of gases, fluids or high-explosives to be delivered than artillery or even mortar shells of the same weight. A version of the 21 cm calibre system was even adapted for air-to-air use against Allied bombers.

The name was also used to fool observers from the League of Nations, who were observing any possible infraction of the Treaty of Versailles, from discovering that the weapon could be used for explosive and toxic chemical payloads as well as the smoke rounds that the name Nebelwerfer suggested. Rocket development had begun during the s and reached fruition in the late thirties. This offered the opportunity for the Nebeltruppen to deliver large quantities of poison gas or smoke simultaneously.

The first weapon to be delivered to the troops was the 15 cm Nebelwerfer 41 in , after the Battle of France, a purpose-designed rocket with gas, smoke and high-explosive warheads. It, like virtually all German rocket designs, was spin-stabilized to increase accuracy. One very unusual feature was that the rocket motor was in the front, the exhaust venturi being about two-thirds down the body from the nose, with the intent to optimize the blast effect of the rocket as the warhead would still be above the ground when it detonated.

This proved to greatly complicate manufacture for not much extra effect and it was not copied on later rocket designs. It was fired from a six-tube launcher mounted on a towed carriage adapted from that used by the 3.

Rocket-projector troops are employed as battalion and regimental units, in keeping with their task of destroying hostile forces by concentrated fire. One of the advantages of the Nebelwerfer 41 is that it can mass its projectiles on a very small target area. By means of a shrewd disposition of the batteries, a carefully planned communication system, and a large number of observation posts with advanced observers, the infantry can assure for itself manoeuvrability and a concentration of its fire power upon the most important points.

The firing positions of the projectors are always carefully built up so that the weapons can give strong support to the infantry. In Russia, during the winter of , many breakthrough attempts by hostile forces were repulsed by direct fire from rocket-projector batteries. The base is flat, with slightly rounded edges.

The rocket jets are located about one-third of the way up the projectile from the base, and encircle the casing. The jets are at an angle with the axis of the projectile so as to impart rotation in flight, in "turbine" fashion.

The Nebelwerfer 41, or Do-Gerät, is unlimbered and placed in position by its crew of four men. As soon as the protective coverings have been removed, the projector is ready to be aimed and loaded.

The ammunition is attached to the right and to the left of the projector, within easy reach, and the shells are introduced two at a time, beginning with the lower barrels and continuing upward. Meanwhile, foxholes deep enough to conceal a man in standing position have been dug about 10 to 15 yards to the side and rear of the projector.

The gunners remain in these foxholes while the weapon is being fired by electrical ignition. Within 10 seconds a battery can fire 36 projectiles. These make a droning pipe-organ sound as they leave the barrels, and, while in flight, leave a trail of smoke. After a salvo has been fired, the crew quickly returns to its projectors and reloads them. Only its original empty steel shell casing and parts, no propellant, no ingnition system, thus completely safe in all regards.

No restrictions to ownership or personal display, but only for sale to over 18's. Not suitable to Export. Copy and paste for original film of Nebelwefer in use on youtube; www. On it's original detachable two part flag pole [around 9 foot high in total] with flag pole top, and later honour ribbons dated and the Imperial German Battle Flag with gold bullion fringing.

Two sided, and with areas of old moth hole and small tears. A fabulous display piece and remarkably rare piece of history. An entire series of Freikorps awards also existed, mostly replaced in by the Honour Cross for World War I veterans.

This parade banner was used, during the interwar period, by the Freikorps as an symbol of old comeradeship on their marches and drive protests through the streets of Berlin and Cities of the pre and early German Third Reich. Hitler viewed some of them as threats. A huge ceremony was arranged on November 9, in which the Freikorps leaders symbolically presented their old battle flags to Hitler's SA and SS.

It was a sign of allegiance to their new authority, the Nazi state. When Hitler's internal purge of the party, the Night of the Long Knives, came in , a large number of Freikorps leaders were targeted for killing or arrest, including Ehrhardt and Röhm. Historian Robert GL Waite claims that in Hitler's "Röhm Purge" speech to the Reichstag on July 13, , he implied that the Freikorps were one of the groups of "pathological enemies of the state".

Flag is 55 inches x 37 inches. Awarded to a WW2 RAF officer, and just one medal short [the defence medal] of the maximum amount of medals any man serving in the Army, Navy or RAF could have been awarded for the entire war. This is an incredible symbol of an extraordinary service career in the war.

Set's and artists provided a theatrical view of Germany's Grand Fleet and Airships using clever sets, backdrops and marionettes. A little like America's P. Barnum's circus and curiosity side shows, but more typically Germanic, having a greater militaristic perspective. Adolph Friedländer, Hamburg", selten.

The reservists flask was a peculiarly German artifact, and alongside the bier stein absolutely typical of the Germanic age of the early 20th century. The flask is an alloy depicting an embossed Zeppelin, an embossed plane and another, an anchor and a panel for luftschiff reserve service, and a similar for the flieger reserve service.

Die Wurzeln des Hinduismus liegen im Veda wörtl.: Wissen , religiösen Texten, deren älteste Schicht auf etwa v. Er verbindet viele Strömungen mit ähnlicher Glaubensgrundlage und Geschichte, die besonders bei den Lehren von Karma , dem Kreislauf der Wiedergeburten Samsara und dem Streben nach Erlösung übereinstimmen.

Er kennt keinen einzelnen Religionsstifter, kein einheitliches Glaubensbekenntnis und keine religiöse Zentralbehörde. Die wichtigsten populären Richtungen sind der Shivaismus , der Vishnuismus und der Shaktismus.

Daneben ist die Indische Volksreligion regional und lokal weit verbreitet. Nicht selten werden lokale Gottheiten oder Stammesgottheiten einfach in das hinduistische Pantheon integriert — eine Herangehensweise, die historisch zur Ausbreitung des Hinduismus beigetragen hat.

Ins Leben gerufen wurde diese Bewegung durch den Rechtsanwalt Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar — , der selbst einer unberührbaren Kaste angehörte. Die Parsen , die heute hauptsächlich in Mumbai leben, bilden eine kleine, überwiegend wohlhabende und einflussreiche Gemeinschaft etwa Nicht zuletzt auch durch ihr ausgeprägtes soziales Engagement spielen sie trotz geringer Bevölkerungsanzahl in der indischen Gesellschaft eine wichtige Rolle.

Auch die Jainas sind oft wohlhabend, da sie aufgrund ihres Glaubens, der das Töten von Lebewesen verbietet, überwiegend Kaufleute und Händler sind. Parsen und Jainas gehören meist der Mittel- und Oberschicht an.

Darüber hinaus existieren kleinere Glaubensrichtungen innerhalb des Islam: Eher fundamentalistisch ist die Dar ul-Ulum in Deoband im nördlichen Bundesstaat Uttar Pradesh, auf die sich unter anderem die afghanischen Taliban berufen, wenn auch in radikal verkürzter Interpretation.

Die Situation der Muslime in Indien ist schwierig. Sie sind ärmer und weniger gebildet als der Durchschnitt. In Politik und Staatsdienst sind sie unterrepräsentiert. Zu bemerken ist jedoch, dass der ehemalige Staatspräsident Indiens, A. Abdul Kalam , ein Muslim war. Die Anzahl der Muslime in Indien steigt schneller als die der restlichen Bevölkerung und bis könnte Indien über Millionen muslimische Einwohner haben. Die Sikhs sind hauptsächlich im Nordwesten Indiens Punjab beheimatet.

Ihre Stellung in der Gesellschaft ist geprägt durch den Erfolg vor allem im militärischen Bereich, aber auch im politischen Leben. Der ehemalige indische Premierminister Manmohan Singh ist ein Sikh. Portugiesische Missionare führten im späten In jüngerer Zeit traten auch Angehörige unberührbarer Kasten sowie Adivasi zum Christentum über, um der Ungerechtigkeit des Kastensystems zu entkommen. Als Indien seine Unabhängigkeit erlangte, lebten auch noch rund Heute wird die Zahl der in Indien verbliebenen Juden auf bis geschätzt, wovon die Mehrheit in Mumbai lebt.

Der Laizismus , die Trennung von Staat und Religion , zählt zu den wesentlichsten Grundsätzen des indischen Staates und ist in seiner Verfassung verankert. Seit Jahrhunderten bestehen verschiedene Glaubensrichtungen zumeist friedlich nebeneinander.

Dennoch kommt es manchmal zu regional begrenzten, religiös motivierten Auseinandersetzungen. Unruhen zwischen Anhängern der beiden Glaubensrichtungen brechen in Indien in gewissen Zeitabständen immer wieder aus.

Ein Konfliktpunkt ist nach wie vor Kaschmir , dessen überwiegend muslimische Bevölkerung teilweise gewalttätig für die Unabhängigkeit oder den Anschluss an Pakistan eintritt. Geschürt werden sie seit den späten er Jahren durch den aufkeimenden Hindu-Nationalismus Hindutva und islamischen Fundamentalismus. Einer der Höhepunkte der Auseinandersetzungen war die Erstürmung und Zerstörung der Babri-Moschee in Ayodhya Uttar Pradesh durch extremistische Hindus im Dezember , da das islamische Gotteshaus einst an der Stelle eines bedeutenden Hindu-Tempels errichtet worden war, der den Geburtsort Ramas markieren sollte.

Die letzten Unruhen traten in Gujarat auf, als 59 Hindu-Aktivisten kar sevaks in einem Zug verbrannt wurden. Infolge der eskalierenden Gewalt kamen etwa Menschen um, hauptsächlich Moslems. Die politische Situation in Kaschmir kostete seit aufgrund der Aktivitäten islamistischer Terroristen über Auch bei anderen Religionen traten Konflikte auf.

Insgesamt kamen bei den Unruhen im Jahre mehr als Sikhs ums Leben. In einigen Bundesstaaten ist es zu Pogromen gegen Christen gekommen. So wurden in der zweiten Jahreshälfte bei religiös motivierten Unruhen in Orissa mindestens 59 Christen getötet. Auch wenn die Ernährungssituation seit den er Jahren entscheidend verbessert werden konnte, ist noch immer mehr als ein Viertel der Bevölkerung zu arm, um sich eine ausreichende Ernährung leisten zu können.

Unter - und Fehlernährung wie Vitaminmangel ist vornehmlich in ländlichen Gebieten ein weit verbreitetes Problem, wo der Anteil der Armen besonders hoch ist. Kinderarbeit wird hauptsächlich auf dem Land geleistet, da das Einkommen vieler Bauernfamilien nicht zum Überleben ausreicht. Hoch verschuldete Bauern müssen oft nicht nur ihr Ackerland verkaufen, sondern auch ihre Dienstleistungen an die Grundherren verpfänden. Die schlechten Lebensbedingungen im ländlichen Raum veranlassen viele Menschen zur Abwanderung in die Städte Urbanisierung.

Dabei sind die wuchernden Metropolen des Landes kaum in der Lage, ausreichend Arbeitsplätze für die Zuwanderer zur Verfügung zu stellen.

Das Ergebnis sind hohe Arbeitslosigkeit und Unterbeschäftigung. Fast ein Drittel der Einwohner der Millionenstädte lebt in Elendsvierteln.

Die Kastenfrage nimmt in der indischen Innenpolitik eine höchst brisante Stellung ein. Unzureichende schulische Bildung sowie Beratung in Fragen der reproduktiven Gesundheit hatte zur Folge, dass die Zahl der HIV -Infizierten ab den er und er Jahren rasch angestiegen ist, seit die ersten Infektionsfälle bekannt wurden. In den Jahren nach ist ein prozentualer Rückgang an Infizierten zu verzeichnen. Hierfür ist hauptsächlich der weitverbreitete ungeschützte Geschlechtsverkehr mit Prostituierten verantwortlich.

Frauen sind in der patriarchalisch geprägten indischen Gesellschaft trotz der rechtlichen Gleichstellung von Mann und Frau nach wie vor benachteiligt. Heute wird eine Aussteuer, obwohl sie seit gesetzlich untersagt ist, [62] aus rein wirtschaftlichen Erwägungen von den Eltern der Braut verlangt. In manchen Fällen übersteigt sie das Jahreseinkommen der Familie der Braut. Gelegentlich kommt es zu so genannten Mitgiftmorden , wenn die Angehörigen der Braut nicht in der Lage sind, die hohen Forderungen zu erfüllen.

Tatsächlich werden weit mehr weibliche Föten abgetrieben als männliche. So kommen nach der Volkszählung unter den Null- bis Sechsjährigen auf Jungen nur Mädchen. Das indische Parlament ist die gesetzgebende Gewalt und besteht aus zwei Kammern: Das Unterhaus wird auf fünf Jahre nach dem Prinzip des Mehrheitswahlrechtes gewählt. Wahlberechtigt ist jeder Staatsbürger, der das Das Oberhaus ist die Vertretung der Bundesstaaten auf nationaler Ebene.

Seine Mitglieder werden von den Parlamenten der Staaten gewählt. Laut dem Bericht gibt es in Indien allerdings Probleme bei der Wahrung der Bürgerrechte und in einigen Gebieten wie z. Liste der politischen Parteien in Indien. Viele Parteien sind zwar auf bestimmte Bundesstaaten beschränkt, dennoch ergibt sich immer wieder die Notwendigkeit, Koalitionen zu bilden.

Seit hat Ram Nath Kovind das Amt inne. Dies war in der Vergangenheit in mehreren Bundesstaaten der Fall. Das Präsidentenamt ist jedoch überwiegend von zeremoniellen oder repräsentativen Aufgaben geprägt, die politische Macht liegt beim Premierminister. Der Präsident ist auch oberster Befehlshaber der Streitkräfte. Der Regierungschef in den 29 Bundesstaaten sowie in zwei von sieben Unionsterritorien ist der Chief Minister , der vom Parlament des jeweiligen Gebiets gewählt wird.

Indien ist in 29 Bundesstaaten engl. States und sieben Unionsterritorien engl. Union Territories gegliedert, die sich in insgesamt über Distrikte engl. In einigen Bundesstaaten werden mehrere Distrikte zu Divisionen engl. Den Distrikten untergeordnet sind parallel und teils überlappend die Tehsils oder auch Taluks , Blöcke und Subdivisions.

Die unterste Verwaltungsebene stellen die Dörfer selbst dar, die mitunter in sogenannten Hoblis zusammengefasst sein können. Während die Unionsterritorien von der Zentralregierung in Neu-Delhi verwaltet werden, verfügt jeder Bundesstaat über ein eigenes Parlament und eine eigene Regierung.

Der Regierung eines Bundesstaats steht der Chief Minister vor, der allerdings formal einem vom indischen Präsidenten ernannten Gouverneur mit weitgehend repräsentativen Aufgaben untergeordnet ist. Im ländlichen Raum wird der dreistufige Panchayati Raj angewandt. Die Zuständigkeiten der Kommunalverwaltungen sind je nach Bundesstaat unterschiedlich gestaltet.

Vor der Unabhängigkeit umfasste Indien sowohl selbstständige Fürstenstaaten unter britischer Aufsicht als auch britische Provinzen englisch Presidencies , die von britischen Kolonialverwaltern regiert wurden. Nach der Unabhängigkeit wurden die ehemaligen Fürstenstaaten von einem ernannten Gouverneur, die ehemaligen Provinzen jedoch von einem gewählten Parlament und einem gewählten Gouverneur regiert.

Im Jahre beseitigte der States Reorganisation Act die Unterschiede zwischen ehemaligen Provinzen und Fürstentümern und schuf einheitliche Bundesstaaten mit einer gewählten Regionalregierung. Bei der Neuordnung der Bundesstaaten wurde die jeweilige Muttersprache der Bewohner als Grundlage der Grenzziehung verwendet. Mai wurde der bisherige Staat Bombay in die neuen ethnischen Staaten Gujarat und Maharashtra aufgeteilt.

Juni entstand aus Teilen des Bundesstaates Andhra Pradesh als neuer, Bundesstaat Telangana ; seine Hauptstadt ist Hyderabad. Die Abkürzungen entsprechen ISO Delhi ist kultureller Mittelpunkt der hindisprachigen Gemeinschaft des Nordens. An dritter Stelle folgt Bangalore. Sie gilt als intellektuelles Zentrum. Frauen erhielten in Indien erst umfassendes Wahlrecht.

Da in Indien Gewaltenteilung herrscht, ist die Judikative streng von Legislative und Exekutive getrennt. Den Vorsitz hat der Chief Justice of India. Streitigkeiten zwischen den Staaten und der Zentralregierung fallen in seine Zuständigkeit. Ab der dritten Rechtsebene Distriktebene wird zwischen Zivil- und Strafgerichten unterschieden. Die Gerichtssprache ist Englisch, auf den unteren Ebenen kann aber auch in der jeweiligen regionalen Amtssprache verhandelt werden.

Während des Unabhängigkeitskampfes bildete sich der Nationalkongress, der die Kolonialherrschaft der Engländer beenden sollte. Nach der Unabhängigkeit wurde die Kongresspartei stärkste Partei und bildete unter Jawaharlal Nehru die erste Regierung. Lotosblüte mit nationalistischen Parolen Unterstützung auf breiter Ebene zu finden. Dies gipfelte in dem Marsch auf Ayodhya und dem Abriss der Moschee, der im ganzen Land zu Ausschreitungen und Übergriffen, vor allem gegen Muslime, mit vielen Toten führte.

Bei der Parlamentswahl erzielte die oppositionelle Kongresspartei unter Sonia Gandhi einen unerwarteten Sieg. Überraschend für ihre Parteienkoalition lehnte sie es ab, den Posten des Premierministers zu übernehmen, Manmohan Singh wurde am Mai als Premierminister vereidigt. Bei der Parlamentswahl konnte die Parteienkoalition der United Progressive Alliance unter Führung des Indischen Nationalkongress ihren parlamentarischen Rückhalt deutlich ausbauen, so dass Manmohan Singh erneut zum Premierminister gewählt wurde.

Dabei betrachtete sich Indien nicht als äquidistant, sondern suchte bis zum Krieg gegen China die Führungsrolle innerhalb der blockfreien Bewegung.

Dies drückte sich beispielsweise in der Entsendung von Friedenstruppen in den Gazastreifen und in den Kongo aus, sowie in der Verurteilung der franko-britischen Intervention in der Sueskrise. Ebenso verurteilte es das sowjetische Vorgehen zu Beginn des Koreakrieges und als inakzeptable Einmischung.

Nach dem Ende des Kalten Krieges orientierte Indien sich neu. Nach den Terroranschlägen am Zwei Wochen später, am Mai, zündete Pakistan zum ersten Mal einen Atomtest. Den Atomwaffensperrvertrag haben weder Indien noch Pakistan unterschrieben. Ein Friedensprozess begann ; er geriet aber nach Anschlägen im indischen Mumbai mit Toten ins Stocken.

Indien macht pakistanische Islamisten für die Tat verantwortlich. Die Atomtests im Mai wurden zwar stets mit dem Verweis auf die chinesische Bedrohung gerechtfertigt Angriff Chinas von , in erster Linie verfolgt Indien mit den Tests jedoch wohl eine internationale Statusaufwertung und versucht, eine Gleichrangigkeit mit China zu untermauern. Indien betreibt eine erhebliche konventionelle Aufrüstung , genauso wie China und andere asiatische Länder wie Pakistan.

Tatsächlich stehen sich Indien und China mittlerweile eher freundschaftlich gegenüber. Zunehmende Handelsverflechtungen und die gegenseitige Anerkennung des Status quo in Tibet durch Indien und Sikkim durch China haben zu einer spürbaren Entlastung des politischen Verhältnisses beigetragen. Auch Grenzverlauf und -verkehr sind teils umstritten.

Juni wurde ein Abkommen unterzeichnet, demzufolge Bangladesch indische Enklaven erhält und Indien im Gegenzug 52 bangladeschische auf seinem Gebiet. Indien ist Mitglied in der Gruppe der zwanzig wichtigsten Industrie- und Schwellenländer und der G Die Beziehungen Indiens zur EU basieren auf einer umfassenden politischen Erklärung und einem Aktionsplan für eine strategische Partnerschaft , die auf dem EU-Indien-Gipfel im Herbst verabschiedet wurden und seitdem schrittweise umgesetzt werden.

Zukünftig will man das Potenzial für gemeinsame Kooperationen und Austausch noch stärker ausschöpfen. Dies gilt insbesondere auch für die Bereiche Konfliktprävention, Terrorismusbekämpfung und die Stärkung der Menschenrechte. In Indien besteht allgemeine Schulpflicht von 6 bis 14 Jahren, und das indische Parlament beschloss einstimmig, das Recht auf Bildung in die Verfassung aufzunehmen. Allgemein hat der Staat in der Vergangenheit besonderes Augenmerk auf die Förderung von höheren Bildungseinrichtungen gelegt, was den aus der Kolonialzeit herrührenden elitären Charakter des Bildungswesens eher noch verstärkt hat.

Dennoch ziehen viele Angehörige der Mittel- und Oberschicht gerade bei der höheren Bildung private Einrichtungen den staatlichen vor. In Indien stieg die mittlere Schulbesuchsdauer aller Personen über 25 von 3 Jahren auf 6,3 Jahre an. Die aktuelle Bildungserwartung beträgt bereits 11,7 Jahre. Weiterführende Schulen und höhere Bildungseinrichtungen stehen dagegen meist nur in Städten zur Verfügung. Ein weiteres Problem ist die Benachteiligung von Mädchen, deren Einschulungsrate geringer ist als die von Jungen Durchschnitt bis Indien verfügt über Universitäten.

Das Gesundheitswesen ist überwiegend staatlich, obwohl es auch viele private Krankenhäuser gibt. In vielen Dörfern gibt es keine medizinischen Einrichtungen. Verschlimmert wird die Lage durch schlechte hygienische Bedingungen, wie fehlender Zugang zu sauberem Trinkwasser und Sanitäranlagen, sowie Unterernährung. Ähnliche Bedingungen herrschen in städtischen Elendsvierteln.

Früher war Indien eines der wenigen Länder der Erde, in denen Männer eine höhere Lebenserwartung aufwiesen als Frauen. In den letzten Jahren hat sich dies umgekehrt. Wegen der geringen Kosten und der guten Qualität der ärztlichen Behandlung in spezialisierten Krankenhäusern gewinnt der Medizintourismus aus nordamerikanischen und europäischen Industrieländern immer mehr an Bedeutung. Indiens Militär besteht aus Freiwilligen, eine Wehrpflicht gibt es nicht.

Sie umfassen 1,3 Millionen Soldaten, wovon 1,1 Millionen im Heer , Die indischen Streitkräfte verfügen über 3. Indien hatte damit das weltweit fünft-höchste Militärbudget. Seit ist Indien offizielle Atommacht. Bis heute hat Indien den Atomwaffensperrvertrag nicht unterzeichnet, verzichtet jedoch laut seiner Nukleardoktrin auf den nuklearen Erstschlag. Zudem besteht mit Mosambik ein Militärabkommen, das Ankerrechte und Versorgung von indischen Kriegsschiffen vorsieht. Mit Mauritius bestehen zudem enge militärische Bindungen.

Die indischen Luftstreitkräfte kontrollieren den mauritischen Luftraum und es besteht eine Zusammenarbeit mit der indischen Marine. Seit der Unabhängigkeit hat das indische Militär kaum Interesse an einer politischen Einflussnahme gezeigt.

Es ist der Zivilverwaltung unterstellt, den militärischen Oberbefehl hat der Präsident. Indien ist eine gelenkte Volkswirtschaft , die seit zunehmend dereguliert und privatisiert wird. Seither hat sich das Wirtschaftswachstum deutlich beschleunigt.

Die Leistungsfähigkeit der indischen Wirtschaft hat nach Einschätzung vieler Beobachter in einigen Branchen Informationstechnologie, Pharmazie inzwischen internationales Spitzenniveau erreicht. Behindert wird das Wachstum der Produktion der indischen Wirtschaft insbesondere durch Mängel der vielfach veralteten Infrastruktur , vor allem durch Engpässe bei der Energieversorgung, die zu häufigen Stromausfällen führen.

Trotz der begonnenen Liberalisierung der Wirtschaft leiden vor allem die Industrie und der Bankensektor nach wie vor unter häufigen staatlichen Eingriffen und den langsamen politischen Entscheidungsprozessen. Der Schutz ineffizienter Staatsunternehmen vor Wettbewerb bleibt ein Hemmschuh.

Ein Belastungsfaktor ist auch die weitverbreitete Korruption. Ausländische Investoren werden so abgeschreckt. Die Integration Indiens in die Weltwirtschaft hat sich in den letzten Jahren verstärkt. Das Land profitiert zunehmend von den Vorteilen der internationalen Arbeitsteilung und der Globalisierung. Die indische Wirtschaft ist aber noch sehr stark binnenwirtschaftlich orientiert.

Ihr Anteil an der Weltwirtschaft liegt noch bei knapp drei Prozent, obwohl Ein- und Ausfuhren in den letzten Jahren kräftig gewachsen sind. Die niedrigen Anteile der Aus- und Einfuhren am Bruttoinlandsprodukt signalisieren noch beträchtliches Wachstumspotenzial. Die mittel- und langfristigen Wachstumsperspektiven Indiens werden vielfach sehr günstig beurteilt. Einige Studien rechnen damit, dass Indien künftig sogar stärker als China wachsen wird. Der derzeitige hohe Anteil junger Menschen an der Bevölkerung wird in den nächsten Jahrzehnten für einen hohen Anteil von Menschen im erwerbsfähigen Alter sorgen.

Die hohen Währungsreserven und relativ niedrige Auslandsschulden dürften das Vertrauen ausländischer Investoren in die Entwicklung der indischen Wirtschaft stärken. Bisher waren die ausländischen Direktinvestitionen in Indien im internationalen Vergleich, insbesondere mit China, gering. Die als wirtschaftsliberal betrachtete Regierung Narendra Modis versucht mit Reformen und Initiativen wie der Make-in-India-Kampagne ausländische Investitionen anzulocken.

Indien konnte sich damit im Vergleich zum Vorjahr um 30 Plätze verbessern und gehörte erstmals zu den ersten Ländern. Platz, mit 40 von maximal Punkten. Von bis wuchs das Bruttoinlandsprodukt BIP Indiens inflationsbereinigt um rund sechs bis sieben Prozent jährlich. Trotz des in den letzten Jahren deutlich beschleunigten Wachstums lag die offizielle Arbeitslosenquote zu dieser Zeit aber noch bei neun Prozent — wobei mit einer erheblichen Zahl von Arbeitslosen zu rechnen ist, die von der Statistik nicht erfasst werden.

Die Gesamtzahl der Beschäftigten wird für auf ,9 Millionen geschätzt. Unbefriedigend bleibt auch die Entwicklung der Staatsfinanzen. Das gesamtstaatliche Haushaltsdefizit bewegt sich bei leicht rückläufiger Tendenz zwischen neun und zehn Prozent des Bruttoinlandsprodukts.

Davon entfällt rund die Hälfte auf das Defizit der Zentralregierung. Von den führenden Agenturen zur Bewertung von Kreditrisiken wird die Bonität Indiens vor dem Hintergrund der günstigen gesamtwirtschaftlichen Entwicklung aber zunehmend besser eingeschätzt. Im Zuge der zunehmenden internationalen wirtschaftlichen Verflechtung Indiens war das Land ab ebenfalls von der weltweiten Wirtschaftskrise betroffen.

Das stetige jährliche Wirtschaftswachstum brach ein. Als Gründe werden der junge, global agierende indische Kapitalmarkt, hohe private Kreditverschuldung, steigende Arbeitslosenzahlen sowie sinkende Binnennachfrage und Exportzahlen genannt.

Zur Bekämpfung der Krise wurden staatliche Konjunkturpakete aufgelegt, unter anderem Infrastrukturprogramme, Steuersenkungen sowie Subventionen für die Exportindustrie. Indiens Wirtschaft hat in den letzten Jahren an Dynamik zurückgewonnen. Das Bruttoinlandsprodukt betrug im gleichen Zeitraum circa 2. Die Inflation sank von zeitweise ca. Indien hat dennoch weiterhin mit einer hohen Armut in der Bevölkerung zu kämpfen. Der weltweit zu beobachtende Wandel der Wirtschaftsstruktur von der Landwirtschaft zur Industrie und zum Dienstleistungssektor vollzieht sich auch in Indien, das aber im internationalen Vergleich, zum Beispiel mit China, immer noch sehr stark agrarisch geprägt ist.

Die ländliche Bevölkerung bildet gleichzeitig den ärmsten Teil der Bevölkerung. Vom Aufschwung der Wirtschaft profitiert bisher vorwiegend die Bevölkerung der Städte, wo sich eine kaufkräftige Mittelschicht oft hochqualifizierter Fachkräfte bildete.

Dies birgt sozialen Konfliktstoff. Die Abwahl der letzten Regierung im Jahr wird wesentlich mit der Unzufriedenheit der ländlichen Bevölkerung mit der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung erklärt. Der Anteil der Landwirtschaft am Bruttoinlandsprodukt ist indes stark rückläufig.

Trug sie noch 56 Prozent bei, so waren es nach Angaben der Weltbank noch rund 17,4 Prozent. Entsprechend hoch ist die Abhängigkeit des jährlichen Wirtschaftswachstums von den Witterungsbedingungen. Ungünstige Erntebedingungen können es spürbar beeinträchtigen. Dennoch ist Indiens Landwirtschaft noch vergleichsweise ineffizient. Im ländlichen Raum sind viele Menschen unterbeschäftigt , und eine umfassende Industrialisierung der Landwirtschaft steht weiten Teilen des Landes erst noch bevor.

Am wichtigsten ist der Anbau von Getreide , vor allem Reis. Dessen Hauptanbaugebiete liegen in den fruchtbaren Stromebenen des Nordens sowie entlang der Küsten und im östlichen Dekkan. Ungefähr ein Fünftel der weltweiten Erträge entfallen auf Indien. Auch beim Weizen , dem zweitwichtigsten Anbauprodukt, liegt Indien weltweit an zweiter Stelle. Mais und Gerste spielen eine geringere Rolle. Wenig effizient ist die indische Viehzucht, trotz des mit Millionen Tieren Stand: Nach der erfolgreichen Ertragssteigerung der Landwirtschaft setzte ab den er Jahren die Förderung der Fischerei ein.

Dies führte zwar zu einer wesentlichen Erhöhung der Erträge, aber auch zur Überfischung vieler Küstenabschnitte. Indiens wichtigste Fischgründe liegen an der Westküste, wo rund 70 Prozent der Fangerträge erzielt werden. Die Garnelenzucht wird besonders gefördert. So stammt mittlerweile etwa die Hälfte der Garnelen aus Aquakulturen , die seit den er Jahren vor allem an der Ostküste angelegt worden sind.

Bei Kupfer ist Indien trotz gesteigerter Ausbeute weiterhin auf Importe angewiesen. Steinkohle ist der wichtigste Energieträger des Landes. Die Vorkommen an Erdöl und Erdgas reichen bei Weitem nicht aus, um die stetig steigende Nachfrage zu decken. Die eigene Produktion deckt nur ein Drittel des Verbrauchs. Erdgaslagerstätten finden sich im Golf von Khambhat und werden erst seit den er Jahren ausgebeutet. Nach der Unabhängigkeit forcierte man daher besonders den Ausbau von kapitalintensiven Schlüsselindustrien.

Dazu gehörten Stahl -, Maschinen - und chemische Industrie. Die Konsumgüterherstellung wurde vernachlässigt und sollte durch Kleinindustrien gedeckt werden. Um die ehrgeizigen Ziele zu erreichen, setzte man nach dem Vorbild der Sowjetunion auf den Ausbau der Schlüsselindustrien durch den Staat mittels Fünfjahresplänen.

Wachstumsimpulse kommen auch von der rasch steigenden Inlandsnachfrage nach langlebigen Konsumgütern. Neben diesen eher traditionellen Industrien dominieren die Eisen- und Stahlerzeugung, Maschinen-, Kraftfahrzeug- und chemische Industrie. Unter ihnen ist der staatliche Anteil besonders hoch. Allerdings nimmt der Anteil privater Betriebe seit der Liberalisierung der Wirtschaft in den er und vor allem frühen er Jahren zu.

Wegen der indischen Patent schutzgesetzgebung, der Arzneimittel nur bedingt unterlagen, kam es immer wieder zu Streitigkeiten mit den Industriestaaten , allen voran den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika.

Mittlerweile hat Indien seine Patentgesetze angepasst. Ein wichtiger Träger des wirtschaftlichen Aufschwunges der letzten Jahre ist die Informationstechnologiebranche , die teils dem industriellen, teils dem Dienstleistungssektor zuzurechnen ist.

Vor allem der Software bereich hat sich zu einem bedeutenden Wirtschaftszweig entwickelt. Auch die Herstellung von Hardware erlebt einen rasanten Aufschwung. Mit zweistelligen jährlichen Wachstumsraten gewinnt auch die Biotechnologie an Bedeutung. Die Spitzentechnologie ist vor allem im Süden des Landes angesiedelt: Das Zentrum der Informationstechnologiebranche ist Bangalore , als neues Wachstumszentrum der Biotechnologie hat sich Hyderabad etabliert, besonders mit der Gründung des Biotechnologiezentrums Genome Valley.

Ungewöhnlich hoch für ein Entwicklungsland ist der Beitrag der Dienstleistungen zur gesamtwirtschaftlichen Produktion Indiens. Insbesondere bei Dienstleistungen im Bereich der Informationstechnologie, sonstigen Ingenieurleistungen, Forschungs- und Entwicklungsarbeiten sowie Verwaltungsaufgaben hat Indien bedeutende Marktpositionen erreicht.

Beispiele sind Callcenter und Dienstleistungen im Gesundheitswesen. Zwischen und hat sich der Warenaustausch mit dem Ausland mehr als vervierfacht. Indien ist ein wichtiger Exporteur von Rohstoffen und Fertigprodukten, aber auch Arbeitskräften und Dienstleistungen. Die wichtigsten Exportgüter sind Textilien , Bekleidung, geschliffene und verarbeitete Edelsteine , Schmuck , Chemikalien , Erdöl erzeugnisse, Lederwaren und Softwareprodukte.

Indien importiert vor allem Rohöl, elektronische Erzeugnisse, Edelsteine z. Diamanten , Maschinen, Edelmetalle , Chemikalien und Düngemittel. Nach ersten Angaben des Statistischen Bundesamtes wuchs der Handel zwischen Indien und Deutschland in den ersten sieben Monaten des Jahres noch einmal deutlich. Deutschland importierte Waren im Wert von 2,4 Milliarden Euro, 30,5 Prozent mehr als im gleichen Vorjahreszeitraum, und exportierte Waren für 3,3 Milliarden Euro, 39,7 Prozent mehr als in den ersten sieben Monaten Bis stieg das gesamte Handelsvolumen auf 17,4 Milliarden Euro an, womit Indien auf Platz 24 der wichtigsten Handelspartner Deutschlands steht.

Der Fremdenverkehr hat sich zu einem der wichtigsten Devisenbringer Indiens entwickelt. August wurde im Oberhaus beschlossen, statt bisher regional geprägter Steuersätze in den 29 Bundesstaaten eine einheitliche Güter- und Dienstleistungssteuer Goods and Services Tax, GST einzuführen, um nahtlosen Warenverkehr zu fördern. Der Beschluss muss noch durch die Bundesstaaten ratifiziert werden und sollte Frühjahr in Kraft treten.

Juli eine indien-weit einheitliche Mehrwertsteuer wirksam werden lassen sollen. Indien steht hinsichtlich der Entwicklung im Bereich Windenergie weltweit an vierter Stelle: Noch im Herbst waren gerade einmal 45 Megawatt Photovoltaik -Leistung installiert [] , durch den starken Zubau wurde bereits im März die Gigawatt-Marke erreicht.

Da Indien den Atomwaffensperrvertrag nicht unterzeichnet hat, sind zahlreiche Länder bei der Beteiligung an der Konstruktion sehr zurückhaltend. Bisher hat Indien zur friedlichen Nutzung der Kernenergie eine Zusammenarbeit mit Russland, [] der Europäischen Union [] und Kanada [] vereinbart.

Siehe auch Liste der Kernreaktoren in Indien.

Navigationsmenü

Attacks, hundreds of miles into enemy territory, were made against airfields, transports and lines of communication - by the end of the North African campaign the SAS had destroyed hundreds of aircraft. During the 17th and 18th centuries and earlier , duels were mostly fought with swords the rapier, later the smallsword , but beginning in the late 18th century in England, duels were more commonly fought using pistols; fencing and pistol duels continued to co-exist throughout the 19th century.

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Jahrhundert entstand die indo-islamische Architektur.

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